Training Needs and Training Opportunities for Emergency Response to Mass-Casualty Incidents
Magnus Morin,Johan Jenvald,Mona J. Crissey
In recent years several methods and tools have been presented for supporting the training of commanders and personnel involved in military and civilian rescue operations. Typically, these state-of-the-art training aids address a specific training issue concerning a particular function in an operational scenario. Examples of such aids are triage training for physicians using a simulated accident scene, training for medical personnel using a human patient simulator, and command-post training using a simulated emergency scenario. However, there is a significant need for examining the implications of this new technology when it comes to developing adequate training programs for integrated task forces, consisting of units from different organisations. In particular, it is important to identify the critical phases of an operation, to define the training needs in these phases, to identify the appropriate training aids for each of the phases, and most important, to ensure that the training conducted can be co-ordinated, reviewed and evaluated in terms of mission-level parameters. In this paper we study these issues in the context of medical attention in a mass-casualty incident. We introduce a casualty-flow network model to identify critical functions and use it to explore training needs. Based on our findings we review several existing training aids and discuss their applicability to emergency response training.